He then moved with his wife and infant daughter to Dresden , Germany, to spend more time composing and to also escape the political tumult that would put Russia on the path to revolution.
The family remained in Dresden for three years, spending summers at Rachmaninoff's in-law's estate of Ivanovka. It was during this time that Rachmaninoff wrote not only his Second Symphony, but also the tone poem Isle of the Dead. Rachmaninoff was not altogether convinced that he was a gifted symphonist.
At its premiere, his Symphony No. Even after the success of his Piano Concerto No. He was very unhappy with the first draft of his Second Symphony but after months of revision he finished the work and conducted the premiere in to great applause. The work earned him another Glinka Award ten months later. The triumph restored Rachmaninoff's sense of self-worth as a symphonist. Because of its formidable length, Symphony No.
Before the piece was usually performed in one of its revised, shorter, versions. Since then orchestras have used the complete version almost exclusively, although sometimes with the omission of a repeat in the first movement.
The first movement begins with a slow introduction, in which the 'motto' theme of the symphony is introduced and developed. This leads to an impassioned climax, after which a cor anglais solo leads the movement into the allegro in sonata form. Assuming the symphony is performed uncut, this also includes a full repeat of the exposition.
The motif serves as a separation between each section of the sonata—allegro form. At around twenty minutes in length in some performances, this is one of the longest symphonic movements by Tchaikovsky.
It is also just short of the length of the remaining movements combined. The second movement is introduced by the melancholy melody of the oboe.
The music's impassioned climax is a reminder of the grieving phrases that dominated the opening movement. Strings play pizzicato throughout the third movement. They are joined by the woodwinds later when an oboe 's long, high A signals the start of the A major Trio section. Later, the brass instruments come in, playing very quietly and staccato. The three groups strings, woodwinds, and brass are the only groups that play; there is no percussion in this movement except for the timpani, as in the previous movement.
It ends quietly with pizzicato strings. The coda is also vigorous and triumphant. The symphony is scored for piccolo , 2 flutes , 2 oboes , 2 clarinets , 2 bassoons , 4 horns , 2 trumpets , 3 trombones , tuba , timpani , bass drum , cymbals , triangle , and strings.
The Fourth Symphony is where Tchaikovsky's struggles with Western sonata form came to a head. In some ways he was not alone. The Romantics in general were never natural symphonists because music was to them primarily evocative and biographical.
Western musical form , as developed primarily by Germanic composers, was analytical and architectural; it simply was not designed to handle the personal emotions the Romantics wished to express. In his first three symphonies he had striven to stay within strict Western form. The turbulent changes in his personal life, including his marital crisis, now led him to write music so strongly personal and expressive that structural matters could not stay as they had been.
Beginning with the Fourth Symphony, the symphony served as a human document—dramatic, autobiographical, concerned not with everyday things but with things psychological. This was because Tchaikovsky's creative impulses had become unprecedentedly personal, urgent, capable of enormous expressive forcefulness, even violence. Along with this emotional urgency came an unprecedented flow of melody. Here, Tchaikovsky developed his gift for tunefulness more freely and deployed it more liberally than he had previously.
Paradoxically, this great asset also became his greatest enemy in terms of form. Introduzione e Allegro.
Alla tedesca. Allegro moderato e semplice. Andante elegiaco. Allegro vivo. Allegro con fuoco. Variations on a Theme of Tchaikovsky for string orchestra, Op. Anton Arensky. Track Listing - Disc 3. Andante sostenuto - Moderato con anima. Andantino in modo di canzona. Scherzo: Pizzicato stinato. Francesca da Rimini, symphonic fantasy for orchestra in E minor, Op.
Alexander Borodin. Track Listing - Disc 4. Andante - Allegro con anima. Andante cantabile, con alcuna licenza - Moderato con anima. Finale: Allegro con fuoco. Composed First performance: February 22, , Moscow.
Nikolai Rubinstein, conductor. There is general agreement among scholars that Tchaikovsky suffered through frequent emotional crises, particularly during the time he composed his Symphony No. It appears that this crisis was caused by dramatically different relationships with two women. One was Nadezhda von Meck, who provided Tchaikovsky with the opportunity to share his innermost feelings. Britannica Quiz. Musical Medley: Fact or Fiction?
The Italian word piano is a musical direction meaning "quickly. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. The triumph of major over minor, epitomized in the finale, underlies the whole.Issued in a laid in container. 20 page informational booklet, (6¾ X 6¾) First released as Symphonies Nos. 1 And 9 (LM) (Darker center label w/color logo of dog. "His Masters Voice" is only written one side of each label below the logo.).