The topic of ontological pluralism discusses different ways, kinds, or modes of being. Turner suggests that "In contemporary guise, it is the doctrine that a logically perspicuous description of reality will use multiple quantifiers which cannot be thought of as ranging over a single domain.
It is common to refer to a film, novel or otherwise fictitious or virtual narrative as not being 'real'. Thus, the characters in the film or novel are not real, where the 'real world' is the everyday world in which we live. However, as authors are wont to say, fiction informs our concept of reality, and so has some kind of reality. Ludwig Wittgenstein 's notion of language-games argues that there is no over-arching, single, fundamental ontology, but only a patchwork of overlapping interconnected ontologies ineluctably leading from one to another.
For example, Wittgenstein discusses 'number' as technical vocabulary and in more general usage:. Wittgenstein suggests that it is not possible to identify a single concept underlying all versions of 'number', but that there are many interconnected meanings that transition one to another; vocabulary need not be restricted to technical meanings to be useful, and indeed technical meanings are 'exact' only within some proscribed context:.
Eklund has argued that Wittgenstein's conception includes as a special case the technically constructed, largely autonomous, forms of language or linguistic frameworks of Carnap and Carnapian ontological pluralism.
He places Carnap's ontological pluralism in the context of other philosophers, such as Eli Hirsch and Hilary Putnam . Epistemological pluralism is a term used in philosophy and in other fields of study to refer to different ways of knowing things, different epistemological methodologies for attaining a full description of a particular field.
As awareness of the issue spread, the American public voiced its opinion, as did concerned scientists and members of Congress. Enactment of the Clean Air Act in and the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency in were the results of various groups speaking up—and being heard—and were clear examples of pluralism in action.
Perhaps the best examples of the pluralism movement can be found in the end of white apartheid in South Africa , and the culmination of the racial Civil Rights Movement in the United States with the enactment of the Civil Rights Act of and the Voting Rights Act of To some extent, both cultural and religious pluralism are based on ethical or moral pluralism, the theory that while several diverse values may forever be in conflict with each other, they all remain equally correct.
Cultural pluralism describes a condition in which minority groups participate fully in all areas of the dominant society, while maintaining their unique cultural identities. In a culturally pluralist society, different groups are tolerant of each other and coexist without major conflict, while minority groups are encouraged to retain their ancestral customs. In the real world, cultural pluralism can succeed only if the traditions and practices of the minority groups are accepted by the majority society.
In some cases, this acceptance must be protected by legislation, such as civil rights laws. In addition, the minority cultures may be required to alter or even drop some of their customs which are incompatible with such laws or values of the majority culture. Many U. In addition, many Native American tribes maintain separate governments and communities in which they practice and hand down their traditions, religions, and histories to future generations.
To save this word, you'll need to log in. She's a champion of pluralism. Morris, Fortune , "Is this the currency collapse Bitcoiners warned about? Send us feedback. See more words from the same year Dictionary Entries near pluralism pluperfect plural plural executive pluralism pluralistic idealism plurality pluralize.
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Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. The word in the example sentence does not match the entry word. The sentence contains offensive content. Cancel Submit. Your feedback will be reviewed. Your browser doesn't support HTML5 audio. What is the definition of pluralism? Browse plunk. Test your vocabulary with our fun image quizzes.Pluralism and neo-corporatism are the two primary theories that have been put forward to explain interest group influence on public policy. Pluralists argue that the most realistic description of politics and policy making is a marketplace with more or less perfect competition.