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Our model homes are also being cleaned thoroughly and frequently. Only one group of customers will be permitted to tour the home at a time, and customer groups are limited to no more than three individuals, including a Realtor if present. Although there were songs about John Henry, there were few stories of him, and, like Paul Bunyan , he is not truly a folk hero.
The imaginative treatment by Roark Bradford in John Henry made the name known to many Americans. John Henry has been depicted in numerous works of art and has inspired film and television plots, but the story remains largely told in song, with versions recorded by folk, blues, and country artists.
John Henry. Article Media. As for proof, mentioned by Nelson, no one will ever have it in the deductive, mathematical sense of that word. We all seek the story that best agrees with what is known. Based on census reports for and , Nelson challenges my assertion that "John Henry Something" was more common than "John Something Henry. Bob Eagle, an Australian lawyer and blues researcher who uses the census extensively and who has about eleven years of experience doing so, sent an e-mail from which I quote in part , with his permission.
This could just represent a change in policy in Washington, DC. It remains hard for me to imagine that a man just over five feet, one inch tall could have been a noted steel driver, a winner of competitions against larger men. John Henry is celebrated for his steel-driving prowess.
To me John W. Henry's small size is one among many factors that make it unlikely that he inspired the ballad. The case for the Virginia story rests on the historic truth of a line found occasionally in the ballad, "They took John Henry to the White House" not always capitalized.
Of 58 independent versions of the ballad published in the books of Guy Johnson and Louis Chappell, eight contain a line like this. Eight other versions specify another place for John Henry's burial "burying ground," "graveyard," "river," "father's house".
Both types are widespread. As far as these data permit judgment, it seems that West Virginians and Virginians were equally likely to sing of John Henry's burial at the "white house" and somewhere else. Nelson notes that the President's house became widely known as the "White House" only after The relevance of this is not clear.
We have no version of "John Henry" that is known to predate about Even if "white house" were in the ballad before , I think singers would have found it attractive and tended to pass it on in oral transmission. It would have been unusual and it sings well. It makes more sense to me to imagine that burial in a "graveyard" or "burying ground" was in the original ballad, and that "white house" is a product of mutation, than to imagine the reverse. Because there is no evidence that "white house" was in the original ballad, the identification of John W.
Henry as the legendary steel driver is shaky at best. My opinion is that "white house" is unlikely to have been in the original. If it were not in the original, then the Virginia story would have no foundation. If "white house" were not in the original ballad, how would it have gotten into later versions?
Nelson could be entirely correct. To the first singers of "white house" the reference could have been to the white workhouse at the Virginia Penitentiary. Indeed, I once came across a folk song in which it was clear that "white house" referred to a penitentiary or jail. In an early version of "John Henry" from Florida, the stricken steel driver is taken "on that long white road.
If the candidate grave were John Henry's the facts would conform to ballad stanzas containing something like " In a West Virginia version he is taken from the white house to the tunnel and later buried in the sand of the "new burying ground. In a Kentucky version he "left the white house" to drive steel. In a version of unknown origin, published in , John Henry is brought "from the white house" and taken "to the tunnel to drive. In Nelson's response to my essay, he does not address the facts that there is no evidence that John W.
Henry was a steel driver and no evidence of a contest between man and machine. The extent of what he has established is that manual and steam drilling occurred simultaneously at Lewis Tunnel for about a year. Steam drilling was abandoned eventually and the job finished with manual drilling.
A Lewis Tunnel worker who operated the engine supplying steam to the drills named Bob Jones as the best steel driver there. He did not mention John W. Henry died at Lewis Tunnel is weak. He could have escaped. The book does not mention records of escaped convict workers. I have tried hard to make what Nelson writes in "Steel Drivin' Man" imply that convicts' bodies were sent back to the Virginia Penitentiary for burial but I have been unable to complete the required logical chain.
Governor Wells wrote that contracts have 'stipulated damages of one hundred dollars for each prisoner not returned. The surgeon could have been notified of deaths, and enumerated them, without receiving the bodies.
On p 92 it is stated, "Nearly one hundred men came back between and , most of them dead. The citation at the following sentence provides no quotation or description of content.
It is not clear why it is thought that any corpses came back between and It would have been a waste of time, money, and effort to send them back to the penitentiary, especially when, according to an eye-witness, there was a graveyard at Lewis Tunnel. If it is, Nelson's inability to find blacks there could be because their graves are unmarked. If whites are buried there, as he states, blacks would surely have been buried in a different section, probably in an area not considered to be part of the white cemetery.
Nelson comments that my article in Tributaries fails to give evidence for various claims. This raises the question, "What is evidence? Further, he appeals to the alleged fact that "dozens and dozens" of witnesses place "the conflict on the Chesapeake and Ohio railroad," as if frequency of recovery of testimonial information were a reliable guide to truth.
It is not. Johnson and Chappell made the mistake of placing John Henry at Big Bend Tunnel because they were impressed by the strength of that tradition. Frequency of recovery of elements of a traditional legend, whether in song or testimony, is at best suggestive. It is certainly not definitive. However, testimony from singers placed it in Dallas. In fact, Delia Green died in Savannah, Georgia, in As far as I know, this ballad is known today in Savannah only in forms based on those that re-entered the United States from the Bahamas in the s and thereafter.
In the s Johnson and Chappell interviewed about a dozen men who had worked on the construction of Big Bend or Lewis Tunnel. Some of the others were adamant in their belief that John Henry had not been there — if he had been they would have known about it. He evaded giving details by saying that it was not a big deal and that he had just looked in on it occasionally as he carried out his duties of carrying water and steel. Mason as the construction contractor.
In fact, the contractor at Big Bend Tunnel was W. The story of John Henry is told in a classic folk song, which exists in many versions, and has been the subject of numerous stories, plays, books, and novels. According to legend, John Henry's prowess as a steel-driver was measured in a race against a steam-powered rock drilling machine , a race that he won only to die in victory with hammer in hand as his heart gave out from stress.
The historical accuracy of many of the aspects of the John Henry legend are subject to debate. Sociologist Guy B. Johnson investigated the legend of John Henry in the late s. This man, known as Neal Miller, told me in plain words how he had come to the tunnel with his father at 17, how he carried water and drills for the steel drivers, how he saw John Henry every day, and, finally, all about the contest between John Henry and the steam drill.
Miller, "John Henry wanted to drive against it. He took a lot of pride in his work and he hated to see a machine take the work of men like him. The test went on all day and part of the next day. He wouldn't rest enough, and he overdid. He took sick and died soon after that. Miller described the steam drill in detail.
I made a sketch of it and later when I looked up pictures of the early steam drills, I found his description correct. I asked people about Mr. Miller's reputation, and they all said, "If Neal Miller said anything happened, it happened. Talcott holds a yearly festival named for Henry, and a statue and memorial plaque have been placed along West Virginia Route 3 south of Talcott as it crosses over the Big Bend tunnel. At the time, penitentiary inmates were hired out as laborers to various contractors, and this John Henry was notated as having headed the first group of prisoners to be assigned tunnel work.
Henry, like many African Americans, might have come to Virginia to work on the clean-up of the battlefields after the Civil War. According to Nelson, objectionable conditions at the Virginia prison led the warden to believe that the prisoners, many of whom had been arrested on trivial charges, would be better clothed and fed if they were released as laborers to private contractors.
He subsequently changed his mind about this and became an opponent of the convict labor system. Prison records for John William Henry stopped in , suggesting that he was kept on the record books until it was clear that he was not coming back and had died.
Nelson stresses that John Henry would have been representative of the many hundreds of convict laborers who were killed in unknown circumstances tunneling through the mountains or who died shortly afterwards of silicosis from dust created by the drills and blasting. There is another tradition that John Henry's famous race took place not in Virginia or West Virginia, but rather near Dunnavant, Alabama.John Henry là nhãn hiệu thời trang hàng Nam hàng đầu VN như: quần Jean, quần tây, áo khoác, áo thun, Polo, áo sơ mi, quần short, dây nịt Freelancers chuyên về thời trang nam nữ trẻ trung: quần Jean, quần tây, áo khoác, áo thun, Polo, áo sơ mi, quần short, dây nịt, đầm, váy.